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trauma


How can PTSD affect relationships?

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a crippling disease that can have negative effects on one’s relationships. Triggers may cause the affected individual to lash out at loved ones. Avoidance symptoms may cause one to dissociate and neglect relationships. Hypervigilance can lead to sleep and concentration problems, which then can negatively affect…

What are the four phases of PTSD?

PTSD can be divided into four phases: the impact phase, the rescue phase, the intermediate recovery phase, and the long-term reconstruction phase. The impact phase encompasses initial reactions such as shock, fear, and guilt. In the rescue phase, the affected individual begins to come to terms with what has happened….

How Does PTSD Change and Develop Over Time?

Those who develop posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of experiencing trauma often suffer from nightmares, flashbacks, anxiety, hypervigilance, and/or depressed mood. They may also go through periods of heightened irritability, hostility, and self-destructive behavior. But the question is when? Jessica Tappana, a licensed clinical social worker who specializes in…